Aviation engineers perform a series of quality and fatigue tests on the landing gear. Touchdown on the runway is by far the largest load case for the landing gear. The wheels accelerate to landing speed in almost no time. The inertial mass of the wheels creates a large force.
For realistic testing, the wheels of the landing gear are accelerated up to landing speed. Then the landing gear is dropped, creating a load similar to a real touchdown. By measuring these forces, the landing gear design can be verified and the forces and moments occurring in the aircraft structure can be determined.
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